Solar Power Installation
and installing solar panels.
Solar installation is something that has become
easier over the years and with the steady advancement of solar technology, installing solar
panels and photovoltaic system equipment will surely get even more simplified in the
However that does not mean that solar installation is an easy 5 step process or that
everybody should try it.
Solar Installation and What You Should Know Before You Start!
Due to the fact that solar installation involves working with panels and equipment that produce
several hundred volts of electricity in the sunlight, there are some very serious safety
issues that must be understood before you consider installing solar
panels or PV system components onto your home.
Often, the work involved in solar installation needs to be done by a
professional, permits need to be applied for and specific electrical standards (which often
differ from one area to the next) have to be met.
It is for this reason that there is also often a lot of improvisation involved when installing a
solar power system.
Although we here at SolarPoweraHouse.com do not in any way encourage you to disobey the
standards, rules, requirements and guidelines set forth by your municipality in regards to how to
install solar panels or a solar energy system, we do show you some ways of working around some of
the harder aspects of solar installation at the end of this web page. To be sure, check
with your local building and safety department for specific requirements.
So let's take a look at the basic procedure for installing a grid-tied solar power system onto
your house... but before you do, you may want to check
out our page on Solar Safety.
Installing Solar Panels & Solar
1. First you must make sure that
your roof or where ever you're going to be mounting your solar panels is strong enough for
solar panel installation and to support the weight. There's no point in installing solar
panels on a roof that is going to cave in and ultimately cost you more money to repair.
2. Unless you're using solar roof tiles, the next thing you must do in the process of solar
panel installation is measure the dimensions of your roof and insure that your solar panels (the
entire solar array) can fit in the available space. When installing solar panels, you may also want
to consider using an area where there is considerable space for the addition of more panels in the
future. For proper solar panel installation, ideally solar panels should go on a roof top that
faces the direction that the sun comes up from. So if in your area the sun rises in the east, your
panels should face east for maximum exposure. Just make sure the roof has no shade on it from other
homes, buildings, trees, etc.
One important thing you must know about solar panel installation is that, having just one solar
panel in the shade can stop your whole solar array from working. Also when you are installing solar
panels, make sure that shade won't come with the changing of the seasons or with the future
development in your neighbourhood. Install solar panels no closer than 12" from the edge of the
roof and 16" from the eaves.
3. Before you install solar panels,
you must install brackets on sloped roofs or mount rails on flat roofs.
Solar panel mounts can be bought in home
improvement or solar stores. Stand offs for the brackets or rails must be secured to the
home's rafters or trusses, not just the sheathing. Solar installation brackets are used on
roofs that are sloped, but the slope must be positioned in a way that gives the panel good
direct exposure to the sun. A mount rail system is used in solar installation to allow you to
position the panel in any angle you want. It is important that you keep all the solar panels
at the exact same angle and height (even when the roof slope changes) to keep the voltage
production the same. Make sure you use roof sealant where you drill the screws into the roof
when attaching the brackets or mount rails - so no rain water can leak through the holes in
your roof. Follow the instructions that come with the brackets or rail system you use to
insure that your solar panel installation is done according to manufacturer's
4. Then attach your solar panels by hoisting them up to your roof, laying
them out onto the brackets or mount rail system and fastening them onto the bracket or rail system.
When installing solar panels make sure they don't accidentally slide off of very sloped roofs
before you get a chance to secure them.
5. When solar panel installation is
complete and your panels are secure you must connect them together according to how you want
them to produce power. Make sure all your wires are properly insulated and water proofed
(wrapped with black electrical tape). To prevent shock always connect a ground wire from the
mounting hardware to the earth when performing solar installation.
6. Once the panels have been connected and aligned in place, conduit must
be run underneath the panels, to a junction box, down the side of the house and to the first
photovoltaic component in your system - usually the DC disconnect (see solar system types for proper order
of PV components).
For solar power installation you must use "wiring" consisting of three wires:
negative, positive and ground wire. None of the wiring should be touching the actual
roof. Installing conduit over all
wires coming out of your panels is essential to protect them from exposure to rain, sunlight and
the other elements.
7. Now set up all of your photovoltaic components according to
manufactures instructions (but don't connect them yet). Install your inverter and the other
photovoltaic components in a garage or an outbuilding. Make sure that the area is dry, well
ventilated and that the space is not subject to extreme hot or cold temperatures. This is
especially important when it comes to your battery bank. In fact, if there's going to be any cold
whether at all, you should use a battery box around your entire battery bank to protect it form
changing environments. A battery box is also necessary to protect children and pets from accidental
8. The next step in a typical PV installation would involve running the
power from your inverter into your home's AC breaker panel and other system components. To do
this, first turn off the main breaker and de-energize all AC and DC sources of power.
Then connect your inverter to your AC breaker panel. Connect
the PV wires to the DC disconnect switch and to the other photovoltaic system components up
until the main DC disconnect. Then connect the main DC disconnect to the inverter.
After you do this, (and insure that your system is safe by getting a professional electrician to
test and verify that everything is working properly), you can turn on your breakers and DC/AC
disconnect switches and electricity will be distributed from the AC breaker panel to any electrical
loads in your home.
When wiring through walls, use conduit to protect against shock and short
circuits. For outdoor wiring, use PV conduit over the wires, with water proof fittings or
use duct seal to keep water out.
Also anytime, you're going to be sharing solar power with power from your electric company, it's
a good idea to install a second smaller panel box beside your main one for the solar feed, along
with a convenient shut off switch to make cutting the power from the solar panel easy if necessary.
A very common and usually required safety procedure in solar installation.
The breaker that is used for the solar feed must not exceed 20% of the AC breaker panel's
service size. So if your home's electrical service is 100 amps, this limits your breaker size to 20
amps. If you install solar panels and a pv system that has more amps than that, you may need to
increase your homes electrical service to a 200 amp or higher.
Obviously, this is just a general outline of the solar installation process. You can find all the detail you need by clicking here to download A Guide
To Photovoltaic (PV) System Design and Solar Installation. It's free and if
you like reading, it covers everything.
Here we list a few alternative ways you can save even more money (and
work) by simply working around some of the more expensive and "legally complicated"
aspects of solar energy installation.
Roof or Yard?
If solar panel installation is a little too labor intensive
for you and you don't want to go through all the trouble of mounting and installing solar
panels on your roof, you can always place them in your backyard or on your balcony. This will
require your panels to have some kind of a stand or adjustable support behind them.
However, different areas have different rules for this as well. Some areas require that any
solar panels not mounted to the roof must be protected from the general public via the use of
fencing or a pole mount 8 feet or higher. Do your homework and find out what's required in your
area before proceeding. You can
learn more about pole mounting solar panels by clicking here to go to the Pole Mounted Solar
Panels section of our website.
Panel or Plugs?
If you don't want to connect
directly to your home's AC breaker panel, you can plug appliances directly into the inverter.
Just set up a system where you plug appliances, tvs, toasters, lights, etc, into a convenient
box of "direct access" power outlets (plugs).
This can be as easy as attaching an extension cord from the power inverter, passing it
into the house and adding a power bar with multiple easy access outlets. Many people
choose to implement little solar installation short cuts like these to "work around' some tough
With these options to "work around" some of the more expensive (and complicated) aspects of
solar power installation it gets even easier for you to create a system that can recover
more of your initial costs within just months instead of taking years. In other words, you
make your money back... quicker!
Click here to go to the next section of this website: Solar